Apart from the usual loads, in earthquake prone regions, the structural frame must have enough **strength surplus** distributed in such a way so that in the critical moment of an earthquake, to be able to respond successfully, retaining the building intact.

Reinforced concrete ρ=2.50 t/m3 (ε=25.0 kN/m3)

Light- weight concrete for ground leveling ρ=0.80 t/m3 (ε=8.0 kN/m3)

Sand mortar ρ=2.00 t/m3 (ε=20.0 kN/m3)

Marble ρ=2.70 t/m3 (ε=27.0 kN/m3)

The dead mass of one m2 of the above slab is,

g = 0.15*2.50 + 0.04*0.8 + 0.02*2.0 + 0.02*2.7 = 0.5 t,

i.e. the self mass of one square meter of a usual slab is 0.5 t (weight 5.0 kN)

The dead mass of one m2 of a pool slab, when the pool is filled with just 1.0 m of water is,

1.4 t (weight 14.0 kN)

The dead mass of one m2 of a slab, with 1.0 m of soil on top is 2.5 t (weight 25.0 kN)

*Masonry stretcher bond ρ = 0.21 t/m² (ε = 2.1 kN/m²)
Masonry Flemish bond ρ = 0.36 t/m² (ε = 3.6 kN/m²)*

A wall of 1.00 m length, 2.85 m height and 100 mm thickness has a mass equal to 0.6 t. (weight 6.0 kN).

*
ρ = 0.20 t/m² (ε = 2.0 kN/m²)
The live mass of one m2 residential building is 0.2 t (weight 2.0 kN)*

*
ρ = 0.50 t/m² (ε = 5.0 kN/m²)
The live mass of one m² commercial area is 0.5 t (weight 5.0 kN)*

As a rule, snow loading is lower than the live load generated by the use of people and its value ranges between 0.60 and 1.50 kN/m².

The live distributed load of 1 m² of a parking space is 0.25 t (weight 2.5 kN)

*In a residential building, the maximum live loads are about 20% of the dead loads*